Wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains are continuing to increase their numbers and distribution, sparking intense interest and debate across the western states. The well-established populations in Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, and Washington are thrilling to some residents, but seen as threatening by others. A ballot initiative that passed last November requires Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) to restore wolves to that state by the end of 2023. Meanwhile, recently-passed bills in Idaho and Montana authorized a wide range of additional methods for taking wolves and mandated their state agencies to reduce wolf numbers. The actions in Idaho and Montana also led several pro-wolf groups to file a petition for emergency re-listing of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in May. The only certainty regarding wolves in the West is that management will be increasingly challenging in the years ahead.